Special Issue "Sport, Physical Activity and Public Health: Influence of Age and Gender"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Women's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Leonor Gallardo Guerrero
Website
Guest Editor
IGOID Research Group, Department of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo 45071, Spain
Interests: sport management; sport facilities; sport performance
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Jorge Garcia-Unanue
Website
Guest Editor
IGOID Research Group, Department of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 45071 Toledo, Spain
Interests: sport management; sports policy; sports planning
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Scientific evidence has shown that physical activity and sport, practiced with certain frequency and at a moderate to vigorous intensity, are one of the best strategies currently available to promote public health and the well-being of the population. In addition, physical activity and sport practice are directly associated with increasing quality of life in childhood, adolescence and adulthood.

These improvements in health and quality of life are closely related to the amount and type of activities practiced throughout different stages of life. In addition, the possible benefits and physiological changes are also linked to the gender of the participants. Therefore, the interaction between age and gender in terms of health promotion through sport and physical activity is an incipient area of ​​interdisciplinary research with great academic, political and practical implications.

The aim of this Special Issue is to attract studies that address age and gender influence on physical activity and sport practice. Although this call is primarily intended for manuscripts including samples or observations that analyse the interaction between both variables, research that includes only one sex or age category in their study design is also welcome, provided it is contextualised in the influence or the role of age and gender on public health and sport practice.

Topics as important as gender differences in adherence to physical activity, bone development in growing girls and their relationship with osteoarticular health in adulthood, epidemiology of physical activity in different contexts and ages, the benefits of policies to promote sports practice in elderly people, the efficiency of spending for promoting sports in different populations and savings in health costs, or differences in physiological adaptations to exercise depending on age and gender can be covered in this Special Issue.

Prof. Leonor Gallardo
Dr. Jorge García-Unanue
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Age and physical activity
  • Physiological adaptations by gender
  • Physical activity epidemiology
  • Public health
  • Physical activity promotion
  • Public policies
  • Sport and elderly

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Diet Quality Profile of the Lithuanian Team of Deaf Women’s Basketball Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186749 - 16 Sep 2020
Abstract
There are about 466 million people with hearing impairments in the world. The scientific literature does not provide sufficient data on the actual nutrition and other variables of professional deaf athletes. The objectives of this study were to investigate and evaluate the body [...] Read more.
There are about 466 million people with hearing impairments in the world. The scientific literature does not provide sufficient data on the actual nutrition and other variables of professional deaf athletes. The objectives of this study were to investigate and evaluate the body composition, the physical working capacity, the nutrition intake, and the blood parameters of iron and vitamin D in the Lithuanian high-performance deaf women’s basketball team players. The female athletes (n = 14) of the Lithuanian deaf basketball team aged 26.4 ± 4.5 years were recruited for an observational cross-sectional study. A 7-day food recall survey method was used to investigate their actual diet. The measurements of the body composition were performed using the BIA (bioelectrical impedance analysis) tetra-polar electrodes. In order to assess the cardiorespiratory and aerobic fitness levels of athletes, ergo-spirometry (on a cycle ergometer) was used to measure the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and the physical working capacity at a heart rate of 170 beats per minute (PWC170). The athletes’ blood tests were taken to investigate the red blood cells, hemoglobin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ferritin, transferrin, iron concentrations, and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC). The consideration of the VO2peak (55.9 ± 6.1 mL/min/kg of body weight, 95% CI: 51.8, 58.9) and the low VO2peak (56–60 mL/min/kg of body weight) (p = 0.966) in the deaf women’s basketball team players revealed no differences. For the deaf female athletes, the PWC170 was equal to 20.3 ± 2.0 kgm/min/kg of body weight and represented only the average aerobic fitness level. The carbohydrate and protein intakes (5.0 ± 1.3 and 1.3 ± 0.3 g/kg of body weight, respectively) met only the minimum levels recommended for athletes. The fat content of the diet (38.1 ± 4.1% of energy intake) exceeded the maximum recommended content (35% of energy intake) (p = 0.012). The mean blood serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and ferritin (24.1 ± 6.6 nmol/L and 11.0 ± 4.1 µg/L, respectively) predicted vitamin D and iron deficits in athletes. Female athletes had an increased risk of vitamin D and iron deficiencies. Regardless of iron deficiency in the body, the better cardiorespiratory fitness of the deaf female athletes was essentially correlated with the higher skeletal muscle mass (in terms of size) (r = 0.61, p = 0.023), the lower percentage of body fat mass (r = −0.53, p = 0.049), and the reduced intake of fat (r = −0.57, p = 0.040). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Active Video Games’ Energy Expenditure in Children with Overweight and Obesity and Differences by Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186714 - 15 Sep 2020
Abstract
(1) Background: Childhood obesity has become a main global health problem and active video games (AVG) could be used to increase energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy expenditure during an AVG intervention combined with exercise, differentiating by [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Childhood obesity has become a main global health problem and active video games (AVG) could be used to increase energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy expenditure during an AVG intervention combined with exercise, differentiating by gender. (2) Methods: A total of 45 children with overweight or obesity (19 girls) performed an AVG intervention combined with exercise. The AVG used were the Xbox Kinect, Nintendo Wii, dance mats, BKOOL cycling simulator, and Nintendo Switch. The energy expenditure was estimated from the heart rate recorded during the sessions and the data from the individual maximal tests. (3) Results: The mean energy expenditure was 315.1 kilocalories in a one-hour session. Participants spent the most energy on BKOOL, followed by Ring Fit Adventures, Dance Mats, Xbox Kinect, and the Nintendo Wii, with significant differences between BKOOL and the Nintendo Wii. Significant differences between boys and girls were found, but were partially due to the difference in weight, VO2max, and fat-free mass. (4) Conclusions: The energy expenditure with AVG combined with multi-component exercise was 5.68 kcal/min in boys and 4.66 kcal/min in girls with overweight and obesity. AVG could be an effective strategy to increase energy expenditure in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Importance-Performance Matrix Analysis (IPMA) to Evaluate Servicescape Fitness Consumer by Gender and Age
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6562; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186562 - 09 Sep 2020
Abstract
The fitness sector has always been linked to the analysis of the loyalty of its consumers. Different studies have shown the importance of sports service and human resources for greater customer loyalty. However, few works have studied how the physical environment or servicescape [...] Read more.
The fitness sector has always been linked to the analysis of the loyalty of its consumers. Different studies have shown the importance of sports service and human resources for greater customer loyalty. However, few works have studied how the physical environment or servicescape influences the behavior of consumers in fitness centers based on gender and age. Therefore, the objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between servicescape and the loyalty of fitness center consumers, analyzing through the Importance-Performance Matrix Analysis (IPMA) what the aspects to improve according to gender and age are. The sample was 10,368 fitness center customers (5864 women and 4504 men). After the IPMA, it was concluded that the main improvement margins in general in fitness centers were the equipment and the facility condition, and the facility layout. In turn, in relation to gender and age, the aspects with room for improvement were to a greater extent for equipment and facility condition in women over 21 years of age, and in facility layout for women between 21 and 40 years old and 51–60 years old. Regarding men, the aspects with the highest performance margins were the equipment and facility condition in all the age groups, the facility layout in men up to 50 years old, and the signage in men up to 40 years old and from 51 to 60 years old. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Runner’s Perceptions of Reasons to Quit Running: Influence of Gender, Age and Running-Related Characteristics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6046; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176046 - 20 Aug 2020
Abstract
Physical inactivity has become a major public health concern and, consequently, the awareness of striving for a healthy lifestyle has increased. As a result, the popularity of recreational sports, such as running, has increased. Running is known for its low threshold to start [...] Read more.
Physical inactivity has become a major public health concern and, consequently, the awareness of striving for a healthy lifestyle has increased. As a result, the popularity of recreational sports, such as running, has increased. Running is known for its low threshold to start and its attractiveness for a heterogeneous group of people. Yet, one can still observe high drop-out rates among (novice) runners. To understand the reasons for drop-out as perceived by runners, we investigate potential reasons to quit running among short distance runners (5 km and 10 km) (n = 898). Data used in this study were drawn from the standardized online Eindhoven Running Survey 2016 (ERS16). Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate the relation between reasons to quit running and different variables like socio-demographic variables, running habits and attitudes, interests, and opinions (AIOs) on running. Our results indicate that, not only people of different gender and age show significant differences in perceived reasons to quit running, also running habits, (e.g., running context and frequency) and AIOs are related to perceived reasons to quit running too. With insights into these related variables, potential drop-out reasons could help health professionals in understanding and lowering drop-out rates among recreational runners. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Gender Differences in Kinematic Parameters of Topspin Forehand and Backhand in Table Tennis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5742; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165742 - 08 Aug 2020
Abstract
Background: The identification of gender differences in kinematics and coordination of movement in different body segments in sports may improve the training process by emphasizing the necessity of its differentiation, and consequently individualization, developing, and improving the technique in women and men. Indicating [...] Read more.
Background: The identification of gender differences in kinematics and coordination of movement in different body segments in sports may improve the training process by emphasizing the necessity of its differentiation, and consequently individualization, developing, and improving the technique in women and men. Indicating differences can also help in determining the risk of injury in order to prevent from them by diversifying training programs. However, there is no information regarding this problem in the existing literature pertaining to table tennis. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the values of selected angular and kinematic parameters during topspin forehand and topspin backhand shots between male and female table tennis players. Methods: Six male and six female advanced table tennis players performed topspin forehand and topspin backhand shots, both receiving a backspin ball. The angular parameters in four events (ready position, backswing, maximum acceleration, and forward) at chosen joints as well as the maximal acceleration of the playing hand were measured, using the myoMotion system, and were compared between male and female players. Results: Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found in the magnitude of angular parameters and maximum hand acceleration between men and women. The movement pattern of topspin strokes performed by men takes into account, more than that in the case of women, movements that use large muscle groups and large joints (hip joints, trunk joints, shoulder joints in extension, and flexion). The difference in the values of maximal acceleration reached almost 50 m/s2 in topspin forehand (p < 0.01) and 20 m/s2 in backhand (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Differentiation of movement patterns can be a manifestation of movement optimization due to anthropological differences and limitations. The differences in the values of maximal acceleration suggest that women could use both sides to perform a topspin attack against the backspin ball, while men should seek opportunities to make a stronger shot with a forehand topspin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Employability Process of Spanish Retired Elite Athletes: Gender and Sport Success Comparison
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155460 - 29 Jul 2020
Abstract
The aims of the study were: (i) to describe the work integration after retirement in elite athletes, (ii) to compare the working integration of women and men, and Olympic and non-Olympic athletes, and (iii) to specify the factors that affect their employment status [...] Read more.
The aims of the study were: (i) to describe the work integration after retirement in elite athletes, (ii) to compare the working integration of women and men, and Olympic and non-Olympic athletes, and (iii) to specify the factors that affect their employment status and current monthly income. A total of 476 former elite athletes were surveyed. Non-parametric statistics were applied to compare the differences between groups and a classification tree analysis was performed for the dependent variables. The former elite athlete’s unemployment rate was better than the general population. At the gender comparison, a wage gap appeared between women and men. At the comparison between Olympic and non-Olympic athletes, the link to first employment differed in both groups. In the prediction models, finishing higher education arose as a key factor of the working status and the monthly salary. Among those without higher education studies, planning arose as a factor determining their salary, while among those with high qualifications, gender was the key factor. This study supports the importance of a holistic view of athletic career development and it offers practical insights into the process of reaching first employment after retirement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sex-Specific Energy Intakes and Physical Activity Levels According to the Presence of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Elderly People: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016–2018
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155416 - 28 Jul 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the differences in energy intake and physical activity (PA) levels according to sex and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among elderly people in Korea. Data of 3720 elderly people (aged >65 years) were obtained from the Korean [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the differences in energy intake and physical activity (PA) levels according to sex and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among elderly people in Korea. Data of 3720 elderly people (aged >65 years) were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016–2018). We analyzed PA levels (occupational and recreational PA) and energy intakes (carbohydrate, protein, and fat). The MetS group showed lower levels of moderate intensity recreational PA and place movement than the non-MetS group (p < 0.05); in the MetS group, PA levels were significantly lower in women than in men (p < 0.05). The intakes of total energy, carbohydrate, fat, and protein were lower in the MetS group than in the non-MetS group (p < 0.001). Both the non-MetS and MetS groups showed lower energy intakes in women than men (p < 0.001). Our study shows that elderly people, especially women, with MetS have significantly lower total PA levels and total energy intakes. We confirmed the importance of increased PA and proper nutritional intake in elderly people. Therefore, it is believed that practical measures such as nutrition education and nutrition guidance and PA education are urgently needed to reduce the incidence of MetS among the elderly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Women and Physical Activity in Fitness Centres. Analysis of Future Intentions and Their Relationship with Age
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155289 - 22 Jul 2020
Abstract
Physical activity is an important tool for promoting women’s health. Increasing adherence to physical activity is a challenge for governments and private entities. One of the main objectives of the fitness sector is to build customer loyalty. Their behavioural intentions according to gender [...] Read more.
Physical activity is an important tool for promoting women’s health. Increasing adherence to physical activity is a challenge for governments and private entities. One of the main objectives of the fitness sector is to build customer loyalty. Their behavioural intentions according to gender and age may be a determining factor. The aim of this study was to establish a model that relates the fitness centre’s quality as perceived by female customers, these customers’ future intentions, satisfaction, and age. A total of 745 women participated in this study, with a mean age of 32.97 ± 14.11, divided into three age groups. A confirmatory analysis, a factor invariance analysis, and a multi-group analysis were conducted to verify the validity and reliability of the model. The results revealed that quality is an antecedent of both perceived value and satisfaction in the three age groups. Perceived value is a precursor of satisfaction, except in the group of women over 45 years old. The only antecedent to adaptation to price is quality, except in the older age group. Finally, perceived value was found to be related to adaptation to price. These results will facilitate the development of strategies to promote physical activity among women according to their age. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sex Differences in Maintaining the Requested Handgrip Force Enhanced by Auditory or Visual Feedback
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145158 - 17 Jul 2020
Abstract
Thus far, the differences in effect of auditory or visual feedback in motor learning have presented results derived from mixed groups and sex differences have not been considered. However, perception and processing of auditory stimuli and performance of visual motor tasks appear to [...] Read more.
Thus far, the differences in effect of auditory or visual feedback in motor learning have presented results derived from mixed groups and sex differences have not been considered. However, perception and processing of auditory stimuli and performance of visual motor tasks appear to be sex-related. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning of the simple motor task of maintaining a requested handgrip force in separate male and female groups. A total of 31 volunteers (15 males, 16 females) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups with defined sex and training conditions (audio or visual feedback). Participants performed training sessions over a period of six days, for which auditory or visual feedback was provided, and the effectiveness of both types of signals was compared. The evident learning effect was found in all groups, and the main effect of sex was significant among visual groups in favor of the males (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the main effect of feedback conditions was found to be significant among females, beneficially in the case of auditory displays (p < 0.05). The results lead to the conclusion that an equal number of males and females in mixed experimental groups may be supportive to obtain reliable results. Moreover, in motor-learning studies conducted on females only, a design including auditory feedback would be more suitable. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Predictive Variables of Adolescents’ Intention to Be Physically Active after Graduation. Is Gender a Conditioning Factor?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4308; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124308 - 16 Jun 2020
Abstract
The acquisition of physical activity habits during adolescence is fundamental to guarantee its adherence throughout life. However, these levels decrease during this stage, with women experimenting a more significant decrease. This paper aims to analyze if there are significant differences in the variables [...] Read more.
The acquisition of physical activity habits during adolescence is fundamental to guarantee its adherence throughout life. However, these levels decrease during this stage, with women experimenting a more significant decrease. This paper aims to analyze if there are significant differences in the variables related to the intention to be physically active between men and women and if there is a moderating effect of gender on the variables that predict this intention. The sample is composed of 256 adolescents, aged between 16 and 19 years, 55.50% of whom are men, and 44.50% women. The results show that there are statistically significant differences (p < 0.05), with boys showing higher scores in the intention, athletic identity, and in the strength, condition, and attractiveness. About the predictive variables of the intention, the gender moderates the relationships between the physical attractiveness, condition and strength with the perceived behavioral control (pcfmale-pcfmale = 0.44; −0.48 p < 0.001; 0.27, p < 0.05, respectively), and between the subjective norm and the intention to be physically active (pcmale-female = 0.33, p < 0.01). These results highlight the importance of considering gender when designing specific policies for the promotion of physical-sports practice among adolescents to reduce the existing gender gap. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Physical Activity on the Stress and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Adult Women with Depressive Disorder
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103502 - 17 May 2020
Abstract
Depressive disorder is common in many adult women in the world. It was found that depressive disorder was related to stress and suicidal ideation in Korean adult women with depressive disorder. Physical activities were effective to solve this mental disorder. Thus, the purpose [...] Read more.
Depressive disorder is common in many adult women in the world. It was found that depressive disorder was related to stress and suicidal ideation in Korean adult women with depressive disorder. Physical activities were effective to solve this mental disorder. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of physical activity (PA) on the stress and suicidal ideation of Korean adult women with depressive disorder. A sample of 1315 Korean adult women who have depressive disorder was collected, and the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) was used to determine this purpose of the study. The complex samples in frequency analysis were used to identify the characteristics of the participants. The logistic regression in the complex sample design was conducted to investigate the effects of PA on the stress and suicidal ideation in Korean adult women with depressive disorder. The effects of flexibility exercise on the stress in Korean adult women with depressive disorder showed the odds ratio (OR) value of 1.434 (OR = 1.434, 95% CI = 1.043–1.973, p < 0.05). The effects of flexibility exercise on the suicidal ideation in Korean adult women with depressive disorder presented the OR value of 0.682 (OR = 0.682, 95% CI = 0.496–0.937, p < 0.05). Based on the results, the participants who did flexibility exercises were likely to have less stress and suicidal ideation than the Korean adult women with depressive disorder who did not participate in flexibility exercise. In conclusion, the flexibility exercise has played an important role in reducing and preventing stress and suicidal ideation in Korean adult women with depressive disorder. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Are European Soccer Players Worth More If They Are Born Early in the Year? Relative Age Effect on Player Market Value
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093301 - 09 May 2020
Abstract
The relative age effect (RAE) consists of the lower presence of members of an age group born in the months furthest from the age cut-off date established. In youth soccer, it is known that because of this effect the birth dates of more [...] Read more.
The relative age effect (RAE) consists of the lower presence of members of an age group born in the months furthest from the age cut-off date established. In youth soccer, it is known that because of this effect the birth dates of more players in a team are closer to the cutoff of 1 January. These older players, due to their physical and psychological advantages, are more likely to be identified as talent. This study aimed to examine whether RAE can be identified in professional players of the top five European soccer leagues (Spain, Italy, England, Germany, and France) and to assess its influence on the perceived market value of the players. Market value data for 2577 players were obtained from the Transfermarkt database. A significant RAE was produced in all leagues (p < 0.05). However, this bias did not affect the market value of the professional elite soccer players examined here. Our observations indicate that, while the identification and promotion of talent at young ages are often biased by RAE, once players have reached the professional stage, the market value assigned to them is based more on factors other than their date of birth. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Young Football Players: Influence of the 20 mSRT Score and Maturational Stage
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3257; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093257 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the differences in physical fitness variables, body composition, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet according to the cardiorespiratory fitness and the maturational stage in young football players. A total of 194 male football players (aged 8–16) from three [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the differences in physical fitness variables, body composition, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet according to the cardiorespiratory fitness and the maturational stage in young football players. A total of 194 male football players (aged 8–16) from three football sport schools participated in this study. Data on cardiorespiratory fitness (the 20-m shuttle run test), anthropometric measurements, handgrip strength, respiratory capacity (forced spirometry), and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (KIDMED questionnaire) were collected. Players were divided into two groups depending on their maturational stage (prepubertal n = 127 and pubertal n = 67). The results show a direct relationship between low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index, as well as body fat and leg fat. Similarly, players with lower cardiorespiratory fitness presented higher values of handgrip strength in the prepubertal state. On the other hand, improvements in respiratory values were observed in the pubertal state with the rest of the parameters when the cardiorespiratory fitness was increased. Therefore, the promotion of recreational football that encourage and develop cardiorespiratory fitness is a key factor and can be used as an effective sport activity to promote physical fitness and healthy habits in children and adolescents as well as within the population that is already physically active. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Service Perceptions in Fitness Centers: IPA Approach by Gender and Age
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082844 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Background: The number of fitness practitioners has increased in the last decades. A deeper understanding of user perceptions is required for better service design. Methods: An importance-performance analysis (IPA) and correlational analysis were performed on a sample of 414 members (173 women and [...] Read more.
Background: The number of fitness practitioners has increased in the last decades. A deeper understanding of user perceptions is required for better service design. Methods: An importance-performance analysis (IPA) and correlational analysis were performed on a sample of 414 members (173 women and 241 men) with a mean age of 32.33 years (SD = 11.50) and recruited from 25 fitness centers of Community of Madrid, Spain. Results: The results show that women’s levels of importance and performance are higher than men in most of the service attributes. Women also correlate with a higher priority than men in core elements of the service, such as the variety and number of activities, personal training and fitness service quality. Female members feel more attracted by services like swimming pools and other peripheral services, like a welcome pack and medical or physiotherapist service. According to age, older members feel less satisfied than young users with the cleanliness of activity spaces and with the safety of lockers. Conclusions: Differences in perceptions by age and gender were identified among members of fitness centers. These results should be considered by private and public organizations to provide the best practices and tailored services for engaging more people in physical activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Plantar Pressure Distribution in Female Olympic-Style Weightlifters
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082669 - 13 Apr 2020
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in static and dynamic plantar pressure and other foot geometry variables between female Olympic-style weightlifters and an age- and sex-matched control group. Methods: The study involved 24 national-level competitive weightlifters and 24 [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in static and dynamic plantar pressure and other foot geometry variables between female Olympic-style weightlifters and an age- and sex-matched control group. Methods: The study involved 24 national-level competitive weightlifters and 24 physical education students. Leg dominance was determined and baropodometry was used to assess plantar pressure and foot posture during quiet standing and walking. For all variables basic descriptive statistics were calculated (mean ± standard deviation). Student’s t test was used to compare the between-group differences. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the association between BMI (Body Mass Index) and average and peak plantar pressure. Results: No significant differences were observed in plantar pressure distribution between the two groups. A moderate correlation was found between BMI and non-dominant limb peak and average plantar pressure in the group of weightlifters in the static condition and in the control group in the dynamic condition. Conclusions: Olympic-style weightlifting may affect plantar pressure distribution and foot posture in female weightlifters. BMI may also correlate with peak and average plantar pressure in this population. Further research is needed to determine if Olympic-style weightlifting may affect plantar pressure distribution and foot posture in female weightlifters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Activity Demands and Speed Profile of Young Female Basketball Players Using Ultra-Wide Band Technology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1477; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051477 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Performance profiles have begun to be identified as extremely useful in order to help coaches individualize training according to the age and gender of athletes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the activity demands and speed profile of U18 female [...] Read more.
Performance profiles have begun to be identified as extremely useful in order to help coaches individualize training according to the age and gender of athletes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the activity demands and speed profile of U18 female basketball players during competitive matches. Time variables (real and playing time), distance variables (distance performed, distance in speed zones, high intensity distance and distance covered sprinting) and speed variables (number of sprints, sprint duration, maximum speed and average speed) were recorded from forty-eight players belonging to four teams (13 guards, 22 forwards and 13 centers). WIMUPROTM inertial measurement units with ultra-wide band (UWB) indoor-tracking technology recorded six matches during final four in the season 2018/2019. A one factor ANOVA with Cohen’s effect sizes (d) were used to identify the differences between groups (playing position and match day). Distance per minute (123.96 vs 112.67 m), high intensity distance per minute (15.48 vs 14 m), running distance (403.2 vs 541.28 m) and average speed (5.05 vs 5.41 km/h) were significantly higher on day 3 than 1, respectively. About playing position, forwards played more minutes during games, so covered a greater distance, more sprints and high intensity actions than the rest. In spite of fatigue, day 3 showed a greater intensity than day 1, therefore, the last day was the crucial one for the teams in the tournament. Forwards when playing more minutes obtain higher absolute values ​​but not per minute which could mean a lower performance of the team. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pistol and Rifle Performance: Gender and Relative Age Effect Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041365 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: The sport overrepresentation of early-born athletes within a selection year is called relative age effect (RAE). Moreover, gender performance differences depend on the sport. The main objectives of the study were to compare performances between gender and RAE in precision shooting events. [...] Read more.
Background: The sport overrepresentation of early-born athletes within a selection year is called relative age effect (RAE). Moreover, gender performance differences depend on the sport. The main objectives of the study were to compare performances between gender and RAE in precision shooting events. Method: The results of 704 shooters who participated in the most recent World Shooting Championship were compared. Performance was analysed by event (rifle and pistol), gender and category (junior and senior), together with RAE and six ranges of ranking positions. Results: The results of the study indicated that men scored higher than women in pistol events and that no performance differences were found in rifle events when the whole group was compared. According to the birth trimester, no significant differences were found in the participant’s distribution, nor in performance in any case. Conclusions: The main conclusions of the study are: (1) the men’s pistol performance is better than the women’s even though RAE is not associated to the shooting score in any case; (2) men and women performed equally in the general analysis, but their performances were different depending on category and event with no RAE influence. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Motivational Climate Is Associated with Use of Video Games and Violence in Schoolchildren: A Structural Equation Model According to Healthy Behaviors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041272 - 17 Feb 2020
Abstract
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to develop an explanatory model of motivational climate, problematic use of videogames, violent behaviour and victimisation in schoolchildren. The sample included 734 children aged between 10 and 12 years of age from the province of Granada [...] Read more.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to develop an explanatory model of motivational climate, problematic use of videogames, violent behaviour and victimisation in schoolchildren. The sample included 734 children aged between 10 and 12 years of age from the province of Granada (Spain). A multi-group structural equation model was used, with an excellent fit (CFI = 0.964; NFI = 0.954; IFI = 0.964; RMSEA = 0.048). The results showed a positive relationship between the problematic use of video games, victimisation and violent behaviors, associating negatively with the task climate. Likewise, the task-oriented motivational climate was indirectly related to victimisation situations and violent behavior, while the ego climate did so positively with special emphasis on children who did not perform physical activity. As a main conclusion it is shown that adherence to the practice of physical activity, and particularly within a task-oriented motivational climate, can act as a protective factor against the problematic use of video games. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantification of Internal and External Load in School Football According to Gender and Teaching Methodology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010344 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The design of teaching tasks determines the physical and physiological demands that students are exposed to in physical education classes. The purpose of this study is to quantify and compare, according to gender and teaching methodology, the external (eTL) and internal (iTL) load [...] Read more.
The design of teaching tasks determines the physical and physiological demands that students are exposed to in physical education classes. The purpose of this study is to quantify and compare, according to gender and teaching methodology, the external (eTL) and internal (iTL) load resulting from the application of two programs that follow different teaching methodologies, i.e., a Tactical Games Approach (TGA) and Direct Instruction (DI), to teach school football. The Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPEs) recorded in the assessments were also studied. A total of 41 students in the fifth year of primary education from a state school from Spain participated in the study (23 boys and 18 girls), aged from 10 to 11 (M ± SD, 10.63 ± 0.49 years) and divided into two class groups. All the sessions were monitored with inertial devices that made it possible to record physical activity and convert the information into kinematic parameters. The results indicated that the students who followed the TGA method recorded higher iTL values (heart rate) and spent more time performing high-intensity activities. Boys recorded higher eTL, iTL, and RPE values than girls. There was an evolution in the RPE between the assessments, with both groups presenting a more efficient RPE in the posttest. The TGA method favors student physical fitness and health, thus, this method is recommended when planning physical education sessions. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Tools Used to Measure the Physical State of Women with Celiac Disease: A Review with a Systematic Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020539 - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is an immunological disorder that mainly affects the small intestine, generating an inflammatory process in response to the presence of gluten (a protein). Autoimmune diseases are part of a group of diseases that are difficult to diagnose without a specific [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) is an immunological disorder that mainly affects the small intestine, generating an inflammatory process in response to the presence of gluten (a protein). Autoimmune diseases are part of a group of diseases that are difficult to diagnose without a specific protocol or consensus to detect them due to the number of symptoms and diseases with which it has a relationship. Therefore, the aim of this review was to analyze the diagnostic tools of CD used in middle-aged women, to compare the use and effectiveness of the different tools, and to propose a strategy for the use of the tools based on the results found in the literature. The present research followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. The search was conducted in the following databases: Scielo, PubMed, Web of Science, and Worldwide Science org. In the initial literature search, 2004 titles and relevant abstracts were found. Among them, 687 were duplicates, leaving 1130 articles. Based on the inclusion criteria, only 41 articles passed the selection process; 4 main types of analyses appear in the studies: blood tests, questionnaires, clinical history, and biopsy. It can be said that none of the analyses have a 100% reliability since most of them can present false negatives; therefore, the best way to diagnose celiac disease up to now is through a combination of different tests (Immunoglobulin A and small intestinal biopsy). Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Microvascular Damage in a Young Female Archer Assessed by Nailfold Videocapillaroscopy: A Case Report
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124218 - 12 Jun 2020
Abstract
Archers are known to be exposed to the risk of developing various injuries, including less described microvascular damages, which can however heavily affect the performance of athletes. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy is a safe, proven and non-invasive method that allows us to examine the nail [...] Read more.
Archers are known to be exposed to the risk of developing various injuries, including less described microvascular damages, which can however heavily affect the performance of athletes. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy is a safe, proven and non-invasive method that allows us to examine the nail capillaries and diagnose vascular anomalies in athletes suffering from the consequences of microtrauma caused by repeated use of fingertips. The detection of defined capillaroscopic pictures is the basis for the follow-up and suggests carrying out further clinical investigations to exclude underlying pathologies. In women this aspect is even more important since they are more frequently affected by autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma which can cause microcirculation alterations. We report the case of a 16-year-old woman who has been practicing archery for five years. She had been complaining for two years about painful fingertips, worsening in the last year. Through videocapillaroscopy, carried out by using a ×200 optical probe-equipped videocapillaroscope connected to image analyzer software (VideoCap software 3.0; DS Medica, Milan, Italy), we detected changes in the microvasculature compatible with a non-specific pattern. The findings of these anomalies suggest a diagnostic analysis aimed at excluding the presence of systemic diseases such as scleroderma. Once these conditions are excluded, and assuming that the documented alterations are due to the particular muscular effort and vibrations to which the fingers are subjected in shooting, we suggest follow-up to keep under control possible further developments and clinical changes. As far as we know, this is the first report that documents and describes the condition of microvascular changes in an archer. Archers, similar to other athletes who mainly use fingertips such as volleyball players, are more exposed to the development of digital traumas that can induce alterations in the microcirculation. We suggest that a periodic capillaroscopy should be included in the health surveillance program of these athletes, in fact this simple, reliable, non-invasive and inexpensive diagnostic tool is able to recognize early signs of microvascular damage and then suggest indications for further investigations and or follow-up. Full article
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