Special Issue "Advances in Multihazard Science"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences and Geography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Guido Ventura
Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Roma, Italy
Interests: volcanology; tectonics; geomorphology; marine geology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Several areas of Earth are characterized by severe exposure to different types of phenomena and associated hazards (e.g., earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, floods, drought, sea level rise, hurricanes, and storms). These lead to many deaths and damages to infrastructures, agriculture, and urban areas. Fallout of the economy may be also relevant. Multihazard science is the analysis of natural events that occur simultaneously or cumulatively over time in a given area and includes (a) the overlay of single, independent hazards and (b) the cause–effect relationships among different hazards (i.e., the chain of events). Single-hazard approaches and/or the simple sum of multiple distinct hazards could underestimate the effective risk. Approaches that consider multiple hazards and their potential interactions are more difficult to analyze, but they are more representative of the actual environment. Multihazard science requires a multidisciplinary approach and, at present, is at a seminal stage while rapidly growing.

This Special Issue (SI) aims to promote new ideas and approaches to find answers to the numerous questions in multihazard science. This SI considers original research contributions and reviews on all areas of Earth sciences and related fields involved in multihazard science(s), including physical geography, volcanology, geophysics and geodesy, soil science, environmental science, statistics and probability, hydrology, oceanography, meteorology, urban planning, decision making science, and agricultural sciences. The results of applied studies from local to global scales and theoretical advances are encouraged. Successful early-warning case studies and proposals of new methodological approaches are also welcome.

Dr. Guido Ventura
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Satellite InSAR as a New Tool for the Verification of Landslide Engineering Remedial Works at the Regional Scale: A Case Study in the Three Gorges Resevoir Area, China
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6435; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186435 - 16 Sep 2020
Abstract
Several countries worldwide are funding large-scale programs to mitigate landslide risk by implementing engineering remedial works. However, the overall effectiveness of such measures is rarely monitored, and they are typically performed at the slope scale without fully exploiting the wide-area capabilities of remote [...] Read more.
Several countries worldwide are funding large-scale programs to mitigate landslide risk by implementing engineering remedial works. However, the overall effectiveness of such measures is rarely monitored, and they are typically performed at the slope scale without fully exploiting the wide-area capabilities of remote sensing technologies. A multi-scale and multi-source monitoring procedure for evaluating the slope stability and the effectiveness of related remedial works was proposed in this study and applied in the middle section of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), China. The area is highly exposed to landslide hazards, and a massive program of engineering remedial works was recently implemented. Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR)-based techniques were first exploited at the regional scale with the objective to provide a general overview of the deformative scenario and to highlight localized problems (active landslides or high deformation zones) to be further investigated; then, local-scale field investigation and multi-source ground monitoring data were employed to verify the deforming states of active landslides and to evaluate the effectiveness of the landslide engineering remedial works. The results indicated that, among the 310 mapped landslides in the study area, 52 were identified to be active and in a slow-moving state by satellite InSAR; Among the 58 controlled landslides, 9 of them were suspected to be active in a slow-moving state and require further concern. Particular attention was paid to two controlled landslides that were found in a continuously and progressively deforming state. We observed that the regional-scale program of slope stabilization was highly successful; however, the variation of the surrounding environmental setting could have led to landslide reactivation or partial invalidation of the landslide remedial works. The proposed multi-scale and multi-source monitoring framework is low-cost, easy to perform, and very straightforward to communicate to citizens and authorities. It can be easily implemented with very wide areas to assess the slope stability and to investigate the effectiveness of large-scale governmental risk mitigation programs, identifying precursor signals that could allow for intervention before reaching critical conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multihazard Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation of Concurrent Extreme Metocean Hazards Considering Seasonality
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4794; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144794 - 13 Jul 2020
Abstract
Simultaneous occurrence of metocean variables can present a multihazard to maritime systems. However, simplified design approaches to assess simultaneous significant wave heights and wind velocities are lacking, especially if seasonality is considered. This is addressed in this study by using extreme significant wave [...] Read more.
Simultaneous occurrence of metocean variables can present a multihazard to maritime systems. However, simplified design approaches to assess simultaneous significant wave heights and wind velocities are lacking, especially if seasonality is considered. This is addressed in this study by using extreme significant wave heights and companion wind velocities recorded in the Gulf of Mexico. Time-dependent, generalized extreme value (GEV) models and classical regression are the basis to propose a simplified approach to estimate correlated extreme significant wave heights and wind velocities associated with given return periods, accounting for seasonality and including measures of uncertainty. It is found that the proposed approach is a new but simple method to adequately characterize the concurrent extreme metocean variables and their uncertainty. It is concluded that the method is an effective probabilistic design tool to determine simultaneous extreme significant wave heights and companion wind velocities for desired return periods and seasonality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multihazard Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Scenario-Based Pyroclastic Density Current Invasion Maps at Poorly Known Volcanoes: A Case Study from Changbaishan (China/North Korea)
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072622 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Changbaishan volcano (China/North Korea; last eruption in 1903 AD) was responsible for a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 7 eruption in 946 AD. Approximately 186,000 people live around Changbaishan and 2,000,000 tourists/year visit the volcano. An unrest occurred between 2002 and 2006. Despite the [...] Read more.
Changbaishan volcano (China/North Korea; last eruption in 1903 AD) was responsible for a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 7 eruption in 946 AD. Approximately 186,000 people live around Changbaishan and 2,000,000 tourists/year visit the volcano. An unrest occurred between 2002 and 2006. Despite the relevant hazard, the eruptive history is poorly known, a condition common to many volcanoes worldwide. Here, we investigate the extension of the areas potentially affected by pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) in case of future eruptions following a scenario-based approach. We perform energy cone runs referred to four scenarios from columns of height 3, 10, 20 and 30 km at different vents. By using global datasets on PDCs, we produce spatial probability maps of PDCs invasion. Empirical laws between covered areas, PDC travelled distances, and heights of collapse are provided. In scenarios 3 and 4, PDCs expand at distances up to 42 km and 85 km, respectively. In scenarios 1 and 2, PDCs invade the touristic area and few main roads. Severe effects emerge from scenarios 3 and 4 with the interruption of the China–North Korea land and aerial connections and PDC. Our approach may serve as guide for the rapid evaluation of the PDC-related hazard at poorly known volcanoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multihazard Science)
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