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Open AccessArticle
Phenylpropanoids Are Connected to Cell Wall Fortification and Stress Tolerance in Avocado Somatic Embryogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165679 (registering DOI) - 08 Aug 2020
Abstract
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a valuable model for understanding the mechanism of plant embryogenesis and a tool for the mass production of plants. However, establishing SE in avocado has been complicated due to the very low efficiency of embryo induction and plant regeneration. [...] Read more.
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a valuable model for understanding the mechanism of plant embryogenesis and a tool for the mass production of plants. However, establishing SE in avocado has been complicated due to the very low efficiency of embryo induction and plant regeneration. To understand the molecular foundation of the SE induction and development in avocado, we compared embryogenic (EC) and non-embryogenic (NEC) cultures of two avocado varieties using proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Although Criollo and Hass EC exhibited similarities in the proteome and metabolome profile, in general, we observed a more active phenylpropanoid pathway in EC than NEC. This pathway is associated with the tolerance of stress responses, probably through the reinforcement of the cell wall and flavonoid production. We could corroborate that particular polyphenolics compounds, including p-coumaric acid and t-ferulic acid, stimulated the production of somatic embryos in avocado. Exogen phenolic compounds were associated with the modification of the content of endogenous polyphenolic and the induction of the production of the putative auxin-a, adenosine, cellulose and 1,26-hexacosanediol-diferulate. We suggest that in EC of avocado, there is an enhanced phenylpropanoid metabolism for the production of the building blocks of lignin and flavonoid compounds having a role in cell wall reinforcement for tolerating stress response. Data are available at ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD019705. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research 3.0)
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Open AccessReview
Efficacy of Polymer-Based Nanocarriers for Co-Delivery of Curcumin and Selected Anticancer Drugs
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1556; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081556 (registering DOI) - 08 Aug 2020
Abstract
Cancer remains a heavy health burden resulting in a high rate of mortality around the world. The presently used anticancer drugs suffer from several shortcomings, such as drug toxicity, poor biodegradability and bioavailability, and poor water solubility and drug resistance. Cancer is treated [...] Read more.
Cancer remains a heavy health burden resulting in a high rate of mortality around the world. The presently used anticancer drugs suffer from several shortcomings, such as drug toxicity, poor biodegradability and bioavailability, and poor water solubility and drug resistance. Cancer is treated effectively by combination therapy whereby two or more anticancer drugs are employed. Most of the combination chemotherapies result in a synergistic effect and overcome drug resistance. Furthermore, the design of polymer-based nanocarriers for combination therapy has been reported by several researchers to result in promising therapeutic outcomes in cancer treatment. Curcumin exhibits good anticancer activity but its poor bioavailability has resulted in its incorporation into several polymer-based nanocarriers resulting in good biological outcomes. Furthermore, the incorporation of curcumin together with other anticancer drugs have been reported to result in excellent therapeutic outcomes in vivo and in vitro. Due to the potential of polymer-based nanocarriers, this review article will be focused on the design of polymer-based nanocarriers loaded with curcumin together with other anticancer drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NanoBioMedicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation into Freezing Point Depression in Soil Caused by NaCl Solution
Water 2020, 12(8), 2232; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082232 (registering DOI) - 08 Aug 2020
Abstract
Engineering practices illustrate that the water phase change in soil causes severe damage to roads, canals, airport runways and other buildings. The freezing point is an important indicator to judge whether the soil is frozen or not. Up to now, the influence of [...] Read more.
Engineering practices illustrate that the water phase change in soil causes severe damage to roads, canals, airport runways and other buildings. The freezing point is an important indicator to judge whether the soil is frozen or not. Up to now, the influence of salt on the freezing point is still not well described. To resolve this problem, a series of freezing point tests for saline soil were conducted in the laboratory. Based on the relationship between the freezing point and the water activity, a thermodynamic model considering the excess Gibbs energy was proposed for predicting the freezing point of saline soil by inducing the UNIQUAC (universal quasi-chemical) model. The experimental results show that the initial water content has little influence on the freezing point if the initial water content is higher than the critical water content, while the freezing point decreases with the decrease of the water content if the initial water content is lower than the critical water content. Moreover, it is found that the freezing point is related to the energy status of liquid water in saline soils and it decreases with the increase of the salt concentration. Moreover, the freezing point depression of saline soil is mainly caused by the decrease of water activity. Compared with the other two terms, the residual term, accounting for the molecular interactions, has an obvious influence on the water activity. This result is helpful for understanding how salt concentration affects the freezing point of saline soil and provides a reference for engineering construction in saline soil areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Landscape and Soil)
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Open AccessArticle
UAV Trajectory Planning in a Port Environment
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(8), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080592 (registering DOI) - 08 Aug 2020
Abstract
In many situations, the trajectory of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is very likely to deviate from the initial path generated by a path planning algorithm. This is in fact due to the existence of dynamic constraints of the UAV. In order to [...] Read more.
In many situations, the trajectory of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is very likely to deviate from the initial path generated by a path planning algorithm. This is in fact due to the existence of dynamic constraints of the UAV. In order to reduce the degree of such a deviation, this research introduces a trajectory planning algorithm, the objective of which is to minimize distance while maintaining security. The algorithm first develops preprocess trajectory points by constructing isosceles triangles then, on the basis of a minimum snap trajectory method, it applies a corridor constraint to an optimization objective function, while the deviation evaluation function is established to quantitatively evaluate the deviation distance. A series of experiments were carried out in a simulation environment with a simplified quay crane model. The results show that the proposed method not only optimizes the time and length of the generated trajectory, but also reduces the average deviation distance by 88.7%. Moreover, the generated trajectory can be well tracked by the UAV through qualitative and quantitative analysis. Overall, the experiments show that the proposed method can generate a higher UAV trajectory quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Essential Oil Content of Baccharis crispa Spreng. Regulated by Water Stress and Seasonal Variation
AgriEngineering 2020, 2(3), 458-470; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriengineering2030031 (registering DOI) - 08 Aug 2020
Abstract
Carqueja (Baccharis crispa Spreng.) has been primarily used as a medicinal plant around the world. Commercially, the essential oil content of carqueja leaves is the most valuable crop productivity variable. We evaluated the effect of irrigation management in different growing seasons on [...] Read more.
Carqueja (Baccharis crispa Spreng.) has been primarily used as a medicinal plant around the world. Commercially, the essential oil content of carqueja leaves is the most valuable crop productivity variable. We evaluated the effect of irrigation management in different growing seasons on the essential oil content of carqueja leaves using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse located in Southern Brazil, where the crop was cultivated for two years in different growing seasons under six irrigation regimes: 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, 125%, and 150% of the reference crop evapotranspiration (T25, T50, T75, T100, T125, and T150, respectively). A seasonal pattern was observed in the number of metabolites of sesquiterpenes and phenolics in the essential oil extracted from the biomass; this outcome was correlated with irrigation regimes and air temperature. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses were used to discriminate the influence of abiotic conditions on secondary metabolite profiles. Spathulenol was the most abundant compound in the essential oils (95.43%) collected during the summer (December–March) season during the third harvest (H3) at T150. The essential oil content was 8.84% ± 0.05% and 10.52% ± 0.10% in summer and winter (June–September), respectively, with T100 at 45 and 46 days after planting. Full article
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Open AccessProceedings
Selection of Appropriate Coastal Protection Structure Using AHP Method
Environ Sci Proc 2020, 2(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2020002004 (registering DOI) - 08 Aug 2020
Abstract
The selection of an appropriate coastal protection structure using multi-criteria analysis method AHP (analytic hierarchy process) was presented by a case study of a beach reconstruction in the Kostanj Bay (north-western part of Croatia). The newly designed beach (about 300 m long) will [...] Read more.
The selection of an appropriate coastal protection structure using multi-criteria analysis method AHP (analytic hierarchy process) was presented by a case study of a beach reconstruction in the Kostanj Bay (north-western part of Croatia). The newly designed beach (about 300 m long) will be formed on the western part of the bay by the additional filling of the natural rocky coastline with gravel and building reinforced concrete seawalls towards the sea. The beach will be protected by a submerged breakwater. Five different alternatives were analysed and defined by a different design of the protective breakwater. The first alternative, without the submerged breakwater, was considered as the baseline alternative. An additional four alternatives were examined based on four criteria and five sub-criteria, which considered the technical, economic, social and environmental impacts. The sensitivity of the ranking for the considered alternatives was analysed using five criteria importance scenarios. Full article
Open AccessReview
Unshrouding the Sphere from the Clouds: Towards a Comprehensive Conceptual Framework for Sustainable Employability
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6366; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166366 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
Sustainable employability refers to individuals’ long-term abilities to work and remain employed. Despite its societal importance in the light of aging populations and rapidly changing skill demands, sustainable employability still requires further definition and conceptualization. As such, the present paper aims to define [...] Read more.
Sustainable employability refers to individuals’ long-term abilities to work and remain employed. Despite its societal importance in the light of aging populations and rapidly changing skill demands, sustainable employability still requires further definition and conceptualization. As such, the present paper aims to define and conceptualize sustainable employability comprehensively by reviewing existing studies on the concept. Additionally, the paper discusses and integrates sustainable employment, sustainable work, and sustainable work ability into our broad framework of sustainable employability. The resulting conceptual framework positions sustainable employability as an inherently longitudinal multidimensional individual characteristic that is the outcome of complex interactions between individual-, work- and work environmental characteristics. This framework enables researchers to identify the employment characteristics that promote sustainable employability and thereby comprise sustainable employment. Finally, the framework links to notions of person-environment fit, and job- and organizational design to create a basis for future research on sustainable employability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Human Resources Management)
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Open AccessReview
Foodborne Botulism: Clinical Diagnosis and Medical Treatment
Toxins 2020, 12(8), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12080509 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridia species are the most potent identified natural toxins. Classically, the toxic neurological syndrome is characterized by an (afebrile) acute symmetric descending flaccid paralysis. The most know typical clinical syndrome of botulism refers to the foodborne form. All [...] Read more.
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridia species are the most potent identified natural toxins. Classically, the toxic neurological syndrome is characterized by an (afebrile) acute symmetric descending flaccid paralysis. The most know typical clinical syndrome of botulism refers to the foodborne form. All different forms are characterized by the same symptoms, caused by toxin-induced neuromuscular paralysis. The diagnosis of botulism is essentially clinical, as well as the decision to apply the specific antidotal treatment. The role of the laboratory is mandatory to confirm the clinical suspicion in relation to regulatory agencies, to identify the BoNTs involved and the source of intoxication. The laboratory diagnosis of foodborne botulism is based on the detection of BoNTs in clinical specimens/food samples and the isolation of BoNT from stools. Foodborne botulism intoxication is often underdiagnosed; the initial symptoms can be confused with more common clinical conditions (i.e., stroke, myasthenia gravis, Guillain–Barré syndrome—Miller–Fisher variant, Eaton–Lambert syndrome, tick paralysis and shellfish or tetrodotoxin poisoning). The treatment includes procedures for decontamination, antidote administration and, when required, support of respiratory function; few differences are related to the different way of exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Foodborne Botulism Outbreaks)
Open AccessReview
A Hundred Years of Bacteriophages: Can Phages Replace Antibiotics in Agriculture and Aquaculture?
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9080493 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
Agriculture, together with aquaculture, supplies most of the foodstuffs required by the world human population to survive. Hence, bacterial diseases affecting either agricultural crops, fish, or shellfish not only cause large economic losses to producers but can even create food shortages, resulting in [...] Read more.
Agriculture, together with aquaculture, supplies most of the foodstuffs required by the world human population to survive. Hence, bacterial diseases affecting either agricultural crops, fish, or shellfish not only cause large economic losses to producers but can even create food shortages, resulting in malnutrition, or even famine, in vulnerable populations. Years of antibiotic use in the prevention and the treatment of these infections have greatly contributed to the emergence and the proliferation of multidrug-resistant bacteria. This review addresses the urgent need for alternative strategies for the use of antibiotics, focusing on the use of bacteriophages (phages) as biocontrol agents. Phages are viruses that specifically infect bacteria; they are highly host-specific and represent an environmentally-friendly alternative to antibiotics to control and kill pathogenic bacteria. The information evaluated here highlights the effectiveness of phages in the control of numerous major pathogens that affect both agriculture and aquaculture, with special emphasis on scientific and technological aspects still requiring further development to establish phagotherapy as a real universal alternative to antibiotic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Therapy, Lysin Therapy, and Antibiotics, a Trio Due to Come)
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Open AccessArticle
Strength of Flocs Formed by the Complexation of Lysozyme with Leonardite Humic Acid
Polymers 2020, 12(8), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12081770 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
Aggregation and aggregates properties of natural organic and nanosized macromolecules such as humic substances and proteins are crucial to explore so-called colloid-mediated transport and the fate of substances in soil and water environments. Therefore, the aggregation and dispersion, charging, and floc strength of [...] Read more.
Aggregation and aggregates properties of natural organic and nanosized macromolecules such as humic substances and proteins are crucial to explore so-called colloid-mediated transport and the fate of substances in soil and water environments. Therefore, the aggregation and dispersion, charging, and floc strength of lysozyme (LSZ)–leonardite humic acid (LHA) flocs were experimentally investigated. The experiments were performed in different salt concentrations and LSZ to LHA mass ratios as a function of pH. We obtained the stronger flocs at pH 4.4, where the isoelectric point (IEP) of the complex with the mass ratio 2.5 was confirmed. Thus, the aggregation of LSZ–LHA flocs is mainly caused by charge neutralization. We obtained the floc strength of 4.7 nN around IEP at low salt concentration of 3 mM, which was stronger than 2.8 nN in high salt concentration of 50 mM. The effect of salt concentration can be rationalized by charge-patch attraction at low salt concentration. With increasing mass ratio, the IEP shifted to higher pH. This is due to the increase in positive charge from LSZ in the mixture. The effect of the LSZ to LHA mass ratio on the maximum strength was weak in the range studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers and Nanomaterials: Interactions and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Trends in Atmospheric Humidity and Temperature above Dome C, Antarctica Evaluated from Observations and Reanalyses
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080836 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
The time evolution of humidity and temperature above Dome C (Antarctica) has been investigated by considering data from (1) meteorological radiosondes (2005–2017), (2) the microwave radiometer HAMSTRAD (2012–2017), (3) four modern meteorological reanalyses (1980–2017) and (4) the southern annular mode (SAM) index (1980–2017). [...] Read more.
The time evolution of humidity and temperature above Dome C (Antarctica) has been investigated by considering data from (1) meteorological radiosondes (2005–2017), (2) the microwave radiometer HAMSTRAD (2012–2017), (3) four modern meteorological reanalyses (1980–2017) and (4) the southern annular mode (SAM) index (1980–2017). From these observations (2005–2017), a significant moistening trend (0.08 ± 0.06 kg m−2 dec−1) is associated with a significant warming trend (1.08 ± 0.55 K dec−1) in summer. Conversely, a significant drying trend of −0.04 ± 0.03 kg m−2 dec−1 (−0.05 ± 0.03 kg m−2 dec−1) is associated with a significant cooling trend of −2.4 ± 1.2 K dec−1 (−5.1 ± 2.0 K dec−1) in autumn (winter), with no significant trends in the spring. We demonstrate that 1) the trends identified in the radiosondes (2005–2017) are also present in the reanalyses and 2) the multidecadal variability of integrated water vapor and near-surface temperature (1980–2017) is strongly influenced by variability in the SAM index for all seasons but spring. Our study suggests that the decadal trends observed in humidity and near-surface temperature at Dome C (2005–2017) reflect the multidecadal variability of the atmosphere, and are not indicative of long-term trends that may be related to global climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Processes Shaping Polar Climate)
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Open AccessReview
Iron-Uptake Systems of Chicken-Associated Salmonella Serovars and Their Role in Colonizing the Avian Host
Microorganisms 2020, 8(8), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081203 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
Iron is an essential micronutrient for most bacteria. Salmonella enterica strains, representing human and animal pathogens, have adopted several mechanisms to sequester iron from the environment depending on availability and source. Chickens act as a major reservoir for Salmonella enterica strains which can [...] Read more.
Iron is an essential micronutrient for most bacteria. Salmonella enterica strains, representing human and animal pathogens, have adopted several mechanisms to sequester iron from the environment depending on availability and source. Chickens act as a major reservoir for Salmonella enterica strains which can lead to outbreaks of human salmonellosis. In this review article we summarize the current understanding of the contribution of iron-uptake systems to the virulence of non-typhoidal S. enterica strains in colonizing chickens. We aim to address the gap in knowledge in this field, to help understand and define the interactions between S. enterica and these important hosts, in comparison to mammalian models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salmonella: Pathogenesis and Host Restriction)
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Open AccessArticle
High-Energy Solid Fuel Obtained from Carbonized Rice Starch
Energies 2020, 13(16), 4096; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164096 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
The paper describes the investigations of the physicochemical properties of biocoal, a solid fuel obtained following the carbonization of rice starch. The production of biocoal (carbonization) was completed at the temperature of 600 °C in the nitrogen atmosphere. As a result of the [...] Read more.
The paper describes the investigations of the physicochemical properties of biocoal, a solid fuel obtained following the carbonization of rice starch. The production of biocoal (carbonization) was completed at the temperature of 600 °C in the nitrogen atmosphere. As a result of the carbonization, amorphous carbon with high monodispersity was obtained, devoided of oxygen elements and was a very well developed BET specific surface—360 m2 g−1. The investigations of the technical parameters have confirmed a very high concentration of energy. The calorific value of 53.21 MJ kg−1 and the combustion heat of 54.92 MJ kg−1 are significantly higher than those of starch before carbonization (18.72 MJ kg−1 and 19.43 MJ kg−1, respectively) and these values for typical biomass fuels. These values are also greater than those of hard coal. Other advantageous features of the obtained fuel are low ash (0.84%) and moisture content. These features predispose this fuel for the application as an alternative to conventional fuels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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Open AccessArticle
A Mobile-Based Tailored Recommendation System for Parents of Children with Overweight or Obesity: A New Tool for Health Care Centers
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(3), 779-794; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030057 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
Childhood obesity is associated with unbalanced lifestyle patterns, and new strategies are needed to support parents in the compliance with the guidelines for children’s age. Tailored automatic recommendations mimic interpersonal counseling and are promising strategies to be considered for health promotion programs. This [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity is associated with unbalanced lifestyle patterns, and new strategies are needed to support parents in the compliance with the guidelines for children’s age. Tailored automatic recommendations mimic interpersonal counseling and are promising strategies to be considered for health promotion programs. This study aimed to develop and test a mobile recommendation system for parents of preschool children identified with overweight/obesity at health care centers. Evidence-based recommendations related to children’s eating, drinking, moving, and sleeping habits were developed and tested using a questionnaire. A pilot study was conducted in a health care center to test how using an app with those tailored recommendations, in video format, influenced parents’ perceptions of the child’s weight status and their knowledge about the guidelines, compared to a control group. The chi-squared test was used for categorical variables and the Mann–Whitney U test for continuous variables (p < 0.05). A high proportion of parents were already informed about the guidelines, but their children were not meeting them. After watching the tailored recommendations, there was an increased knowledge of the guideline on water intake, but there was no improvement in the perception of the child’s excessive weight. Parents may benefit from a mobile-based tailored recommendation system to improve their knowledge about the guidelines. However, there is a need to work with parents on motivation to manage the child’s weight with additional strategies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
“Time”-Covariant Schrödinger Equation and the Canonical Quantization of the Reissner– Nordström Black Hole
Quantum Reports 2020, 2(3), 414-441; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2030029 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
A “time”-covariant Schrödinger equation is defined for the minisuperspace model of the Reissner–Nordström (RN) black hole, as a “hybrid” between the “intrinsic time” Schrödinger and Wheeler–DeWitt (WDW) equations. To do so, a reduced, regular, and “time(r)”-dependent Hamiltonian density was constructed, without “breaking” the [...] Read more.
A “time”-covariant Schrödinger equation is defined for the minisuperspace model of the Reissner–Nordström (RN) black hole, as a “hybrid” between the “intrinsic time” Schrödinger and Wheeler–DeWitt (WDW) equations. To do so, a reduced, regular, and “time(r)”-dependent Hamiltonian density was constructed, without “breaking” the re-parametrization covariance rf(r˜). As a result, the evolution of states with respect to the parameter r and the probabilistic interpretation of the resulting quantum description is possible, while quantum schemes for different gauge choices are equivalent by construction. The solutions are found for Dirac’s delta and Gaussian initial states. A geometrical interpretation of the wavefunctions is presented via Bohm analysis. Alongside this, a criterion is presented to adjudicate which, between two singular spacetimes, is “more” or “less” singular. Two ways to adjudicate the existence of singularities are compared (vanishing of the probability density at the classical singularity and semi-classical spacetime singularity). Finally, an equivalence of the reduced equations with those of a 3D electromagnetic pp-wave spacetime is revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Feature Papers of Quantum Reports)
Open AccessArticle
Pt-Promoted Tungsten Carbide Nanostructures on Mesoporous Pinewood-Derived Activated Carbon for Catalytic Oxidation of Formaldehyde at Low Temperatures
Sus. Chem. 2020, 1(2), 86-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/suschem1020008 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
Tungsten carbide (WC) nanostructures were prepared by carbothermal reduction (CR) of tungsten-impregnated pinewood-derived activated carbon (AC) at 1000 °C under an inert atmosphere. Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) surface area, pore structures of the AC, and catalyst samples were evaluated by N2 adsorption–desorption experiments. The [...] Read more.
Tungsten carbide (WC) nanostructures were prepared by carbothermal reduction (CR) of tungsten-impregnated pinewood-derived activated carbon (AC) at 1000 °C under an inert atmosphere. Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) surface area, pore structures of the AC, and catalyst samples were evaluated by N2 adsorption–desorption experiments. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The morphologies and particle structures of the synthesized WC nanoparticles were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The WC/AC material was used as support of the platinum catalysts for catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO) from interior sources. Pt-WC/AC catalysts with different platinum loadings were assessed for the catalytic oxidation of HCHO at low temperature. The catalytic performance was found to be significantly influenced by reaction temperature, initial formaldehyde concentration, relative humidity, and space velocity. The testing results demonstrated that HCHO can be totally oxidized by the 1 wt% Pt-WC/AC catalyst in the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) = 50,000 h−1 at 30 °C with a relative humidity (RH) of 40%. Full article
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Open AccessProceedings
Modelling Water Related Ecosystem Services in a Heavily Modified Mediterranean Reservoir Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)
Environ Sci Proc 2020, 2(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2020002002 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
Lake Karla (Thessaly, Greece) drainage and morphological alterations affected all water-related ecosystem services (ES). The lake is restored as a multipurpose reservoir, whose inflows are boosted with pumping from Pinios River. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) simulated the watershed’s hydrology and [...] Read more.
Lake Karla (Thessaly, Greece) drainage and morphological alterations affected all water-related ecosystem services (ES). The lake is restored as a multipurpose reservoir, whose inflows are boosted with pumping from Pinios River. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) simulated the watershed’s hydrology and the reservoir’s function, under a climate change scenario to assess water related ES. Official timeseries were used for five different scenarios with simulation period until 2100. The results suggest that the reservoir’s water quality is impacted by summer irrigation and by the water volume from the Pinios during winter. As for the selected ES, in almost all scenarios, they seem negatively affected. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Changes of Significant Wave Height, Energy Period and Wave Power in Italy in the Period 1979–2018
Environ Sci Proc 2020, 2(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2020002003 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
An analysis of a 40-year long wave time series was performed, along the coasts of Italy, in order to identify ongoing trends of two synthetic parameters, significant wave height (Hs) and energy period (Te), and of the [...] Read more.
An analysis of a 40-year long wave time series was performed, along the coasts of Italy, in order to identify ongoing trends of two synthetic parameters, significant wave height (Hs) and energy period (Te), and of the wave power (P). First, wave data were deduced from the global atmospheric reanalysis ERA-INTERIM by the ECMWF and checked to verify their consistency. Then, a trend analysis was performed on mean values evaluated at annual and seasonal scales through the non-parametric Mann–Kendall test for three different significance levels equal to 90%, 95% and 99%. The obtained results could be useful for analyses linked to beach morphodynamics and on the identification of field installations of Wave Energy Converters (WECs). Full article

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