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Loss of Two-Pore Channel 2 (TPC2) Expression Increases the Metastatic Traits of Melanoma Cells by a Mechanism Involving the Hippo Signalling Pathway and Store-Operated Calcium Entry
Open AccessReview

Essential Oils and Their Main Chemical Components: The Past 20 Years of Preclinical Studies in Melanoma

1
Preclinical Models and New Therapeutic Agents Unit, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi 53, 00144 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Chemistry and Technologies of Drugs, Sapienza University, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
3
Rome Center for Molecular Design, Department of Drug Chemistry and Technology, Sapienza University, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(9), 2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092650
Received: 31 July 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 14 September 2020 / Published: 16 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Novel Treatment Options in Metastatic Melanoma)
In the last years, targeted therapy and immunotherapy modified the landscape for metastatic melanoma treatment. These therapeutic approaches led to an impressive improvement in patients overall survival. Unfortunately, the emergence of drug resistance and side effects occurring during therapy strongly limit the long-term efficacy of such treatments. Several preclinical studies demonstrate the efficacy of essential oils as antitumoral agents, and clinical trials support their use to reduce side effects emerging during therapy. In this review we have summarized studies describing the molecular mechanism through which essential oils induce in vitro and in vivo cell death in melanoma models. We also pointed to clinical trials investigating the use of essential oils in reducing the side effects experienced by cancer patients or those undergoing anticancer therapy. From this review emerged that further studies are necessary to validate the effectiveness of essential oils for the management of melanoma.
The last two decades have seen the development of effective therapies, which have saved the lives of a large number of melanoma patients. However, therapeutic options are still limited for patients without BRAF mutations or in relapse from current treatments, and severe side effects often occur during therapy. Thus, additional insights to improve treatment efficacy with the aim to decrease the likelihood of chemoresistance, as well as reducing side effects of current therapies, are required. Natural products offer great opportunities for the discovery of antineoplastic drugs, and still represent a useful source of novel molecules. Among them, essential oils, representing the volatile fraction of aromatic plants, are always being actively investigated by several research groups and show promising biological activities for their use as complementary or alternative medicine for several diseases, including cancer. In this review, we focused on studies reporting the mechanism through which essential oils exert antitumor action in preclinical wild type or mutant BRAF melanoma models. We also discussed the latest use of essential oils in improving cancer patients’ quality of life. As evidenced by the many studies listed in this review, through their effect on apoptosis and tumor progression-associated properties, essential oils can therefore be considered as potential natural pharmaceutical resources for cancer management. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma; essential oils; angiogenesis; apoptosis; metastasis melanoma; essential oils; angiogenesis; apoptosis; metastasis
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Di Martile, M.; Garzoli, S.; Ragno, R.; Del Bufalo, D. Essential Oils and Their Main Chemical Components: The Past 20 Years of Preclinical Studies in Melanoma. Cancers 2020, 12, 2650.

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